Snow Leopard Trust ecologist Dr Kulbhushansingh (“Kullu”) Suryawanshi has won a British Ecological Society Young Investigator prize. The prize – one of only five awarded each year – recognizes the best research papers published in BES journals by early career scientists.
Kulbhushan won the Southwood Prize for the best paper in the BES’s Journal of Applied Ecology in 2013 for his paper on ‘People, predators and perceptions: patterns of livestock depredation by snow leopards and wolves’ (which we’ve written about more extensively here).
The prize, which is includes £250, a year’s BES membership plus a year’s subscription to the journal, will be presented at the British Ecological Society’s annual meeting in Lille, France, in December.
According to the journal editors, who judged the prize: “There is a lot of literature on human-wildlife conflict, but the careful and thorough interdisciplinary approach taken to the issue by Dr Suryawanshi and his colleagues is still far too rare.
“This paper combines robust social science with cutting edge ecological research to generate novel insights with direct lessons for management of human-wildlife interactions. Papers that contain each of these four components areas are still very rare and are exactly the type of research that the Journal of Applied Ecology aims to promote.”
The paper compared people’s perceptions of the risk factors for predation by snow leopards and wolves on their livestock with data on actual predation incidents. The research also involved the authors in substantial ecological fieldwork to estimate wild prey numbers.
The study calls into question the suggestion that snow leopard killing of livestock would reduce if wild prey numbers were increased, and suggests that work is needed to align perceived and actual risk and to engage better with people about how best to address carnivore depredation of their livestock.
Kulbhushan is currently working as a Regional Ecologist with the Snow Leopard Trust, Seattle, US & as a Research Scholar with the Nature Conservation Foundation (NCF), Mysore, India.
For his PhD with the NCF, he worked on the impact of wild-prey availability on the population and diet of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia) with implications for livestock predation by this endangered carnivore.
He is interested in the application of science-based problem solving to conservation conflicts, and applications of population and Behavioural Ecology to species conservation.
- For more information on the British Ecological Society and the Young Investigator prizes, visit www.britishecologicalsociety.org
- For more information on the Journal of Applied Ecology, visit www.journalofappliedecology.org
- For more information on Dr Kulbhushansingh Suryawanshi, visit www.rwcindia.org/alumni-profiles/batch-06-08/kulbhushansingh-suryawanshi
See the first ever photos of a snow leopard’s successful hunt and read photographer Adam Riley’s thrilling account of the unforgettable experience!
During a snow leopard viewing expedition in India’s Hemis National Park, wildlife photographer Adam Riley was able to observe – and take photos of – a cat hunting and killing a blue sheep. He shares his pictures and story with us here.
Text and photos by Adam Riley (INDRI Ultimate Wildlife Tours)
[comment, Snow Leopard Trust, 3/6/2104:
This is the first ever documentation of a snow leopard kill in the wild. Over the past few years, more and more tourists have been visiting Rumbak, the area in which these photos were taken, hoping to see a wild snow leopard - and many of them have indeed encountered the majestic cat. These visitors have brought visibility to the snow leopard and have helped strengthened local communities' acceptance of the cat - developments that are extremely important for snow leopard conservation.
However, we strongly feel that tourism in this fragile ecosystem should be practiced responsibly. The number of people visiting a particular area; camping policies and waste disposal plans have to be carefully planned.
In absence of carefully drafted policies for responsible tourism, it is possible that the negative effects of high tourist influx to the ecology of the area may outweigh the benefits it may generate in terms of generating revenue and awareness.
We have decided to share these photos here, because they are important and because we believe our supporters have a high level of interest in them. We hope they will help animate the discussion on responsible tourism in snow leopard habitat.]
It was our third day in high elevation Hemis National Park, we had awakened before dawn and chugged down a mug of life-giving coffee before ascending a few hundred yards to a knoll above our tented camp in the Rhumbak Valley.
At this very spot, on our first afternoon in the park, and within half an hour of officially beginning our Snow Leopard search, our expert local spotter had exclaimed “Shan!!” – the Ladakhi name for Snow Leopard. After a few tense moments and some mild panic, we had all trained our telescopes on a Snow Leopard stalking across a far mountain slope. The distance was extreme, estimated at 2.5-3km, even the cat’s spots were hard to discern, yet we spent an enthralling hour and a half watching it sunning itself on a rock, then rolling like a tabby in loose gravel before setting off, at a remarkably rapid pace, across the mountain slope until it disappeared above a cliff face. Moments later it came barreling down the cliff in a chase, scattering a herd of Blue Sheep in all directions, however it didn’t seem to reach striking distance of any of them. It then disappeared over the mountain ridge, seemingly in disgust!
“High fives” were shared all round, we were elated! We had 9 days in the mountains and by the first day we had already actually clapped eyes on this, the Grey Ghost of the Himalayas, albeit distantly. Seeing a wild Snow Leopard is every wildlife enthusiast’s dream, probably the ultimate and most elusive wildlife experience on the planet. This Holy Grail of sightings was until quite recently, virtually impossible, requiring months of extreme endurance for even the slimmest glimmer of hope. Peter Matthiessen’s famous book Snow Leopard describes such an attempt that proved ultimately unsuccessful in his primary goal of glimpsing a Snow Leopard.
Knowing this, we were certainly far from disappointed by our experience but we of course all dreamed of a closer view. So the next day we trekked to the Tarbung Valley, lying below our camp. It was on the upper slopes of this valley where our distant Snow Leopard had been observed. By the end of the day our eyes were stinging with the effort of incessantly scanning the slopes surrounding us for another view of this cryptic feline. I hadn’t imagined that there would literally be millions of locations within view at any time where a Snow Leopard could be hiding! By sunset we felt that we were faced with a near impossible task and were grateful for the extreme luck to have obtained our first sighting! However, we were somewhat encouraged by spotting at least 10 herds of Blue Sheep (locally known as Bharal) on the slopes around this lower valley. These sturdy mountain sheep are the preferred diet of the Snow Leopard in this part of its range and the high density of prey was a good indication that a predator should be around!
Our guide explained that camera traps scattered at strategic sites in the three valleys around our camp had revealed that there were no less than 11 resident Snow Leopards in the immediate vicinity! An astounding density for a large predator, especially in such a cold, desert-like environment.
Day three had dawned bright and sunny once again. We opted for a pre-breakfast scan at the knoll above camp from where we had lucked into our first sighting. This time it was our assistant Snow Leopard spotter who uttered the magical word, and after a scramble we were again all watching a much closer Snow Leopard in the Tarbung Valley. The cat actually appeared almost golden in the early morning light and this time we could admire its magnificent thick, blotched pelt, extremely long tail and large head. Snow Leopards are the subject of recent taxonomic debate, sometimes being placed in their own genus Uncia (from their earliest Western name Ounce, an ancient name first given to the Eurasian Lynx; which also occurs in Hemis National Park). However most recent research places them amongst the Panthera. This is the genus of the typical large cats including Lion, Leopard, Jaguar and Tiger. In fact genetic evidence indicates that the Snow Leopard’s closest living relative is the Tiger. Our Snow Leopard sat, quite Cheetah-like, before stalking off and once again rolling in the gravel, apparently an indication of the desire to mask its scent before a hunt. We realized that we could place ourselves much closer to our dream target if we hiked down into the valley where we had spent the previous day, so we left one of our spotters on the knoll with a radio and we descended with bated breath, by-passing camp and breakfast en route!
Half an hour later we were on the slope opposite to where we had seen our Snow Leopard and with directions from our spotter we managed to relocate the cat. It was barely visible at the top of an outcrop about 300m away, cautiously peering over the rocks at us. We settled down and trained our telescopes, cameras and binoculars on the far slope and slowly but surely, our leopard gained confidence until it lifted its whole head and stared at us. As the sun rose and the day heated up, our cat dozed off, all we could see was a paw and the top of its head.
As the shadows lengthened, a herd of ten Blue Sheep made an appearance on the scene. They slowed grazed their way up from the stream cutting through the valley, heading in the general direction of the rocky outcrop in which our Snow Leopard was resting. Closer and closer they approached and our adrenalin levels began to rise, but then the lead sheep changed direction and started moving back down the hill. Seven in total descended but two adults and a juvenile kept moving towards the danger zone…
After an hour the sun dipped over the horizon and the temperatures started to plummet. The three upper sheep stopped grazing and lay down, seemingly bedding down for the night, and we guessed that the show was over. In fact some of our group decided to head back to camp. However after another quarter of an hour these three sheep started grazing again and continued making their way to the lusher grasses growing along the base of the outcrop in which our Snow Leopard was still snoozing. Suddenly the Snow Leopard detected the presence of its prey and sat up on its haunches for the first time since we had relocated it. It began to bob its head from side to side, a clear feline sign of measuring distance and perspective in planning an attack. We could not believe our fortune, could we really be treated to a Snow Leopard hunt – this was beyond our wildest dreams? Then the leopard was moving and it headed along the top of the outcrop, disappearing on the hidden slope opposite to where the sheep were grazing.
Two minutes later it appeared half way down the outcrop and slightly above the Blue Sheep. First it sat up trying to relocate its prey and once locked on, the cat slunk low and crept into a fault line that ran across the outcrop towards the sheep. Half way across the rocks, it sunk into a hollow, just the top of its head visible as it kept a careful watch. The two adult sheep now began moving away from the attack zone, did they have an instinct that danger was near, or did they know from experience not to dally near rocks where leopards might lie in wait?
However the young sheep carried on oblivious heading higher up the slope along the edge of the outcrop, and closer and closer to the hidden Snow Leopard. By this stage we were all at our wits end and shaking with excitement, was the Snow Leopard going to charge, why was it taking soooooo long? My shoulders were aching with the effort of holding my camera ready for the pounce.
And finally in a blur, everything happened.
The Snow Leopard leapt from its cover, bounding across the rocks in great leaps towards the young Blue Sheep. All three sheep took to flight, creating dust trails in their wake. The speed at which the Snow Leopard closed ground on the young sheep was remarkable as it barreled off the rocky outcrop to open ground, clearing a large rock en route.
Within seconds the Snow Leopard was on the hapless sheep. After careful scrutiny of images, it seems that the Blue Sheep lost its footing as it tried to escape but in the process it kicked up a load of gravel and dust, right into the Snow Leopard’s face, temporarily blinding the cat. This gave the sheep a vital break and it was able to pull away from the leopard which kept at its heels but was several critical paces behind.
The two adult sheep has gone their separate ways, one heading downhill away from the danger and the other, possibly the younger sheep’s mother, scrambling up a steep slope. At this point, our young sheep made a tactical error and instead of fleeing downslope, it tried to follow the upper sheep.
Finally the young sheep realized the leopard was almost upon it and bravely pulled a u-turn, heading back down the slope in the direction from which it had come. Snow Leopards have extremely long tails, up to a meter in length and besides storing fat, the tail is utilized as a ‘scarf’ in the winter. This tail is also a valuable rudder and balancing device, thus the Snow Leopard was easily able to perform its own abrupt u-turn and track the sheep back down the slope.
The young sheep cleared a massive jump, but it was the beginning of the end as it could not match the 15m (50ft) jumps that a Snow Leopard can achieve, and within moments the cat was right on its heels.
Extending a paw, the Snow Leopard seemed to ankle-tap the sheep and as it rolled, the cat leapt onto sheep and immediately latched onto its throat. This take at such high speed and on a steep slope meant gravity took its affect and the cat and sheep tumbled over and over each other until the Snow Leopard took control of the situation. The Snow Leopards’ thick pelts have long been highly sought-after artifacts by the people who share its Central Asian range, providing amazing insulation in the cold, but another reason their pelts are so thick must be to protect the leopard when it takes rough tumbles across its rugged, rocky environment.
For at least 3 minutes the Snow Leopard lay alongside the young sheep, firmly attached to its throat as it suffocated its prey, the Blue Sheep feebly kicking its hind legs intermittently.
Only when it was certain the sheep was dead did our predator finally release its fatal grip and rest alongside its upcoming meal for several minutes catching its breath after such an extreme effort. For the first time in minutes, the Snow Leopard became aware of us again, ensuring we had not moved and were posing no threat on the opposite slope.
Finally the Snow Leopard picked up the Blue Sheep and dragged it across the open area, pretty much following the route of the chase, back to the fault line in the rocks and finally over the rocky outcrop and out of our view where presumably it feasted on its well-deserved meal!
By this time the light was fading fast and we arrived back in camp half an hour later in the pitch dark, still not quite believing what had unfolded before our eyes!
This was truly an incredible encounter we had been so, so fortunate to witness; a full Snow Leopard hunt from beginning to end including the take and kill. Our Snow Leopard spotter had been working in Hemis for 16 years and he had never seen this happen before nor knew anyone else who had been as fortunate as us. Film crews and professional photographers have spent months and sometimes even years following Snow Leopards and although several thrilling hunts have been captured, as far as we are aware, no successful hunt has ever been photographed! I am exhilarated therefore to be able to share my images and story of this hunt with you.
This event was observed during a tour arranged and guided by INDRI – Ultimate Wildlife Tours (www.indritours.com). INDRI offer Snow Leopard expeditions annually in October and February, combined with a Royal Bengal Tiger and Indian One-horned Rhinoceros extensions. They also arrange and guide other wildlife tours globally to the world’s last remaining wildernesses in search of iconic wildlife.
Thanks to Adam Riley and Simon Bellingham, INDRI – Ultimate Wildlife Tours
Vote for your favorite poster promoting wildlife conservation in Pakistan!
Pakistan is home to a stunningly diverse fauna, with iconic species including the snow leopard, markhor, urial, cheetah, indus dolphin, crocodile, and brown bear.
To help protect this natural heritage, our Pakistani partner organization, Snow Leopard Foundation, has joined hands with the Pakistan Museum of Natural History (PMNH), the English Access Program, and the U.S. Embassy to run a country-wide poster contest among youth on ‘Why conserving wildlife in my community is important.’
The top posters were sent to the capital city, Islamabad, where a jury of experts evaluated the posters and selected four finalists for an online voting. All three posters will be printed in large quantities for circulation in schools to promote awareness on wildlife issues.
The artists who created them will receive prices at an award ceremony on World Wildlife Day, March 3rd, at the Pakistan Museum of Natural History in Islamabad, with the Federal Secretary of the Ministry of Science and Technology, Mr Kamran Ali Qureshi, doing the honors.
Check out these fascinating and beautiful posters – and vote for your favorite – on the US Embassy’s Facebook page: www.facebook.com/pakistan.usembassy
This beautiful wild snow leopard’s path led it past one of the research cameras our Indian team had deployed in the rugged mountains of Spiti, Himachal Pradesh.
These endangered cats have become increasingly rare in the last decades. Their famously elusive nature makes snow leopards hard to find – so these stunning pictures are a precious rarity!
You can help protect this majestic cat and its relatives by making a donation to support our snow leopard conservation programs in five Asian countries.
We can share these photos with you thanks thanks to the dedication and great work of an outstanding field team recruited from local communities! Thank you, Tanzin Thinley, Kalzang Gurmet, Chunit Kesang, Rinchen Tobge, Tandup Chhering, Tanzin Thuktan, Gelson Tanpa, Lobzang Namgial, Nawang Rinchen, Sonam Chhering, Lobzang Chhering, Paldan Rabge, Palzor Chhering and Sonam Choda!
In the Himalayas and Central Asian Mountains, snow leopards share parts of their habitat with brown bears – and both carnivores are vital parts of this mountain ecosystem. They also both come into similar conflict situations with the people who live alongside them. Protecting the cats is our mission, but sometimes, this also means helping bears.
Last fall, a herder living inside Pin Valley National Park in India’s Spiti Valley found his hut severely damaged. Stored food had been eaten and thrown around. As it appeared, a rather large animal had broken into the hut. Rinchen, a member of our India team, visited the herder to investigate what had happened. But when Rinchen got to the scene and spoke to the people, he quickly realized what had happened. “It was a bear”, he exclaimed, a little surprised.
There hadn’t been any previous records of brown bears from this part of the Himalayas. A new species of large carnivore had evidently colonized the Pin Valley National Park! Much like the snow leopard, the brown bear is an indicator of a relatively healthy ecosystem, so its presence in this area is an encouraging sign – also for the cats!
“We try to help conserve snow leopards, their habitat, and the associated mountain biodiversity across Asia. This often includes the bears”, says Charu Mishra, the Snow Leopard Trust’s Science& Conservation Director. “We’ve been studying the cats and their prey species, but in order to really understand the dynamics in the ecosystem they live in, we also need to learn more about fellow predators such as the brown bear.“
Learning about bears
Our Pakistan team has been doing just that: Working with a team of international colleagues, Dr. Muhammad Ali Nawaz, the Snow Leopard Trust’s country program director, has been studying the habitat use of Himalayan brown bears in Pakistan’s Deosai National Park – across the border, but not all that far from Pin Valley National Park. “We wanted to find out which parts of the park were particularly important to the bears, so they can be protected more effectively”, Dr. Nawaz explains. “We also investigated how human presence influences the bears’ habitat use.”
As their recently published study shows, bears prefer marshy, grassy areas with high vegetation density and an abundance of marmots; the bears’ primary protein source in Deosai. As it turns out, only 50% of the National Park meets these criteria, so the protected area suitable to bears is significantly smaller than it would appear at first sight. An increase in human activities threatens to further make life hard for the bears. Grazing negatively affects bear habitat, and with livestock numbers growing fast in the region, the bears find themselves under increasing pressure.
“As more and more human activities expand into in the core zone of the park, we might see an increase in conflicts”, Ali Nawaz says.
His colleagues in India are equally aware of this very problem – and the incident in Pin Valley serves as a timely reminder. “Bears may be attracted by garbage in the villages and by food stored in the mud huts of the local people. On the Tibetan Plateau, there have been incidents of bears damaging property, killing livestock and sometimes injuring or even killing people in their attempts to get to this food”, Charu Mishra explains. “This can be devastating for the affected communities – and it’s bad news for all the area’s carnivores, not just bears but also snow leopards, as conflicts between humans and wildlife intensify.”
Managing conflicts by helping herders to cope with predators has long been a pillar of our conservation strategy for snow leopards – and wherever bears share the cats’ habitat, we are trying to help local pastoralists and wildlife managers cope with them, too.
Our China team led by Prof. Lu Zhi has been studying the problem and experimenting with local people to make their houses more secure.
Trying to learn from their Chinese colleagues, our India team has held meetings with villagers after the bear incident in Pin Valley National Park. They’ve has started to work with local communities on strategies to live alongside bears. Given the team’s long relationship with the communities in Pin Valley, they are already in a position to start assisting them.
The village of Sagnam, the largest in Pin Valley, is an example. Here, our team has helped the local herders start a community-managed livestock insurance program to help share the costs of livestock depredation by snow leopards. Since bears occasionally cause livestock losses, their immediate next step will be to discuss with the community and try to extend the program to cover livestock losses by bears.
“We hope to see more bears in this area in the future, but if we do, we must also continue to find ways to help local communities coexist with them”, Charu Mishra says.
Special thanks to the Whitley Fund for Nature for their support, and to Kulbhushansingh Suryawanshi for contributing to this article.